Middle East and Southeast Asian Refugees in Canada and Finland: Case Studies in "Mature" and in "Incipient" Multiculturalism

Kathleen Valtonen


In this article a case study of resettling
Middle East and South Asian refugees in
the Metropolitan Toronto area is presented
and juxtaposed with a parallel
study conducted in Finland. The main
strategies for labour market participation
in Canada were education, "volunteering"
and networking activity. The
agency principle was pronounced. Interethnic
accord is evident at individual
level, while at the group level of collaboration
it is more elusive. The large size of
the communities and Canadian
multicultural policy allows for a decentralized
style of intra-community activism,
but in Finland, the mode of
issue-focused civil and political activism
across groups could enhance participation
of small communities.

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