Human Security and Refugee Protection after September 11: A Reassessment


  • Raquel Freitas European University Institute (Florence)



refugee protection, security, human rights, terrorism, world politics


In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the security environment in the Western world has changed considerably. Threat perception and risk management are being reassessed, and the word “security” has acquired an added relevance in the political agenda. This paper addresses a particular derivation of the concept of security, which is human security, from the perspective of refugee protection and human rights of the individual, assessing the advantages and disadvantages, together with the possible uses and misuses of the notion in the post-September 11 context. In particular, it deals with the question of what has changed that could demand greater attention in crafting a human security regime, which may in specific regions be inclusive of some but exclusive of others. It concludes by cautioning against a drift of the concept towards incorporating too many different elements that may be used perversely and against the interests of refugees.


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How to Cite

Freitas, R. (2002). Human Security and Refugee Protection after September 11: A Reassessment. Refuge: Canada’s Journal on Refugees, 20(4), 34–44.

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