Social Exclusion: Belonging and Not Belonging in the World System


  • Anthony H. Richmond York University



United Kingdom, social exclusion, refugees, ethnic minorities, migration, globalization


The term “social exclusion” is defined. Research on social exclusion, undertaken in Britain, with particular reference to the situation of ethnic minorities and refugees is reviewed. It is argued that the phenomenon of social exclusion must be understood in a global context. Inequality, social exclusion, ethnic conflict, and terrorist activities, while not caused by globalization, have been greatly exacerbated by recent changes in the world system. The immigration and anti-terrorist measures adopted after 11 September are criticized, and policies that are needed to remedy the consequences of social exclusion are proposed.


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How to Cite

Richmond, A. H. (2002). Social Exclusion: Belonging and Not Belonging in the World System. Refuge: Canada’s Journal on Refugees, 21(1), 40–48.

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