Experiences of Tibetan Refugees in India during the COVID-19 Pandemic





Tibetan, refugee, COVID-19, perceived stress, resilience


This study explores the experiences of 70 Tibetan refugees in India (28 male, 42 female; mean age = 30.90 years; SD = 8.11) during the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of their stress, financial anxiety, perceived discrimination, dark future expectations, and resilience. Older, married, and working refugees experienced more problems but higher resilience. Female refugees reported more nervousness and stress than male refugees. Financial anxiety and dark future expectations predicted higher stress. Overall, the findings show low to moderate levels of mental health issues and high resilience among Tibetan refugees during the pandemic and highlight the importance of cultural beliefs and practices in maintaining good mental health and resilience.

Author Biographies

Lhamo Tso, Independent Researcher

Dr. Lhamo Tso is an independent researcher who completed her Ph.D. in Social Work from Banaras Hindu University (India). The author may be contacted at abigbodhitree@gmail.com

Meenakshi Shukla, Department of Psychology, Magadh University

Dr. Meenakshi Shukla is an Assistant Professor in Psychology at Magadh University, Bodh Gaya (India). The author may be contacted at meenakshi_shukla@hotmail.com


Afridi, F., Dhillon, A., & Roy, S. (2021). The gendered crisis: Livelihoods and mental well-being in India during COVID-19 (WIDER Working Paper 65/2021). World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER). https://doi.org/10.35188/UNU-WIDER/2021/003-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.35188/UNU-WIDER/2021/003-0

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.

American Psychiatric Association. (2006, February 23). Stress weakens the immune system. https://www.apa.org/research/action/immune

American Psychological Association. (2012, January 1). Building your resilience. https://www.apa.org/topics/resilience#

Annis, R., Gibson, R., & Berry, J. W. (2010, October). Intercultural relations in a rural Canadian prairie city [Paper presentation]. Mi/Más Konferencia, Eger, Hungary. https://www.brandonu.ca/rdi/publication/intercultural-relations-in-a-rural-canadian-prairie-city/

Archuleta, K. L., Dale, A., & Spann, S. M. (2013). College students and financial distress: Exploring debt, financial satisfaction, and financial anxiety. Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning, 24(2), 50–62. http://hdl.handle.net/2097/17281

Artiles, C. (2011). Tibetan refugees’ rights and services in India. Human Rights & Human Welfare Working Papers. https://www.academia.edu/40688593/Tibetan_Refugees_Rights_and_Services_in_India

Baker, A., & Shalhoub-Kevorkian, N. (1999). Effects of political and military traumas on children: The Palestinian case. Clinical Psychology Review, 19(8), 935–950. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(99)00004-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(99)00004-5

Barbosa‐Leiker, C., Kostick, M., Lei, M., McPherson, S., Roper, V., Hoekstra, T., & Wright, B. (2013). Measurement invariance of the perceived stress scale and latent mean differences across gender and time. Stress and Health, 29(3), 253–260. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2463 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2463

Bean, T. M., Eurelings-Bontekoe, E., & Spinhoven, P. (2007). Course and predictors of mental health of unaccompanied refugee minors in the Netherlands: One year follow-up. Social Science & Medicine, 64(6), 1204–1215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.11.010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.11.010

Bearak, M. (2016, June 1). Dalai Lama says there are “too many refugees in Europe.” Independent. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/dalai-lama-says-too-many-refugees-europe-a7058911.html

Ben-Kane, Y. (2015). Perceived discrimination, identity and outgroup attitudes among Russian-speaking immigrants living in Finland [Unpublished master’s thesis]. University of Helsinki, Finland. https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/155269

Bernstorff, D., & von Welck, H. (Eds.). (2003). Exile as challenge: The Tibetan diaspora. Orient Blackswan.

Cairney, J., Boyle, M., Offord, D. R., & Racine, Y. (2003). Stress, social support and depression in single and married mothers. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38(8), 442–449. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-003-0661-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-003-0661-0

Central Tibetan Administration. (2021). Chatrel background. https://tibet.net/support-tibet/pay-green-book/

Chatterjee, S. S., Malathesh Barikar, C., & Mukherjee, A. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pre-existing mental health problems. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, Article 102071. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102071 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102071

Choedon, Y. (2018, February 23). The unintended consequences of India’s policy on citizenship for Tibetan refugees. Manohar Parrikar Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. https://idsa.in/policybrief/unintended-consequences-of-india-policy-on-citizenship-for-tibetan-refugees-ychoedon-230218

Crescenzi, A., Ketzer, E., Van Ommeren, M., Phuntsok, K., Komproe, I., & de Jong, J. T. (2002). Effect of political imprisonment and trauma history on recent Tibetan refugees in India. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15(5), 369–375. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020129107279 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020129107279

Cohen, S., & Williamson, G. (1988). Perceived stress in a probability sample of the United States. In S. Spacapan & S. Oskamp. (Eds.), The social psychology of health (pp. 31–67). Sage Publications.

Cullen, W., Gulati, G., & Kelly, B. D. (2020). Mental health in the COVID-19 pandemic. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 113(5), 311–312. https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa110 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa110

De Jong, J. (Ed.). (2006). Trauma, war, and violence: Public mental health in socio-cultural context. Springer Science & Business Media.

Dixit, R. (2020, March 28). Northeast people battle racism amid coronavirus pandemic. The Week. https://www.theweek.in/news/india/2020/03/28/coronavirus-pandemic-fuels-racism-against-northeast-people.html

Evans, D., Buxton, D. C., Borisov, A., Manatunga, A. K., Ngodup, D., & Raison, C. L. (2008). Shattered Shangri-la: Differences in depressive and anxiety symptoms in students born in Tibet compared to Tibetan students born in exile. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43(6), 429–436. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-008-0346-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-008-0346-9

Fazel, M. K., & Young, D. M. (1988). Life quality of Tibetans and Hindus: A function of religion. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 229–242. https://doi.org/10.2307/1386717 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1386717

Finnerty, R., Marshall, S. A., Imbault, C., & Trainor, L. J. (2021). Extra-curricular activities and well-being: Results from a survey of undergraduate university students during COVID-19 lockdown restrictions. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, Article 647402. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.647402 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.647402

Gao, J., Zheng, P., Jia, Y., Chen, H., Mao, Y., Chen, S., Wang, Y., Fu, H., & Dai, J. (2020). Mental health problems and social media exposure during COVID-19 outbreak. PLoS One, 15(4), Article e0231924. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231924 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231924

Gao, X., Ren, Y., & Umar, M. (2021). To what extent does COVID-19 drive stock market volatility? A comparison between the U.S. and China. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2021.1906730 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2021.1906730

Gooding, P. A., Hurst, A., Johnson, J., & Tarrier, N. (2012). Psychological resilience in young and older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27(3), 262–270. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.2712 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.2712

Grupe, D. W., & Nitschke, J. B. (2013). Uncertainty and anticipation in anxiety: An integrated neurobiological and psychological perspective. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14(7), 488–501. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3524 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3524

Hermansson, A. C., Timpka, T., & Thyberg, M. (2002). The mental health of war-wounded refugees: An 8-year follow-up. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 190(6), 374–380. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-200206000-00005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-200206000-00005

Hsu, E., Davies, C. A., & Hansen, D. J. (2004). Understanding mental health needs of Southeast Asian refugees: Historical, cultural, and contextual challenges. Clinical Psychology Review, 24(2), 193–213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2003.10.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2003.10.003

Hussain, D., & Bhushan, B. (2011). Cultural factors promoting coping among Tibetan refugees: A qualitative investigation. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 14(6), 575–587. https://doi.org/10.1080/13674676.2010.497131 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13674676.2010.497131

Jackson, P. R., Stafford, E. M., Banks, M. H., & Warr, P. B. (1983). Unemployment and psychological distress in young people: The moderating role of employment commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(3), 525–535. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.68.3.525 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.68.3.525

Jeste, D. V., Savla, G. N., Thompson, W. K., Vahia, I. V., Glorioso, D. K., Martin, A. V. S., Palmer, B. W., Rock, D., Golshan, S., Kraemer, H. C., & Depp, C. A. (2013). Association between older age and more successful aging: Critical role of resilience and depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(2), 188–196. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12030386 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12030386

Ji, D., Ji, Y.J., Duan, X.-Z., Li,-W. G., Sun, Z.-Q., Song, X.-A., Meng, Y.-H., Tang, H.-M., Chu, F., Niu, X.-X., Chen, G.-F., Li, J., & Duan, H.-J. (2017). Prevalence of psychological symptoms among Ebola survivors and healthcare workers during the 2014–2015 Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone: A cross-sectional study. Oncotarget, 8(8), 12784–12791. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.14498 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.14498

Kadner, K. D. (1989). Resilience: Responding to adversity. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 27(7), 20–25. https://doi.org/10.3928/0279-3695-19890701-11 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3928/0279-3695-19890701-11

Ketzer, E., & Crescenzi, A. (2002). Addressing the psychosocial and mental health needs of Tibetan refugees in India. In J. De Jong (Ed.), Trauma, war, and violence: Public mental health in socio-cultural context (pp. 283–315). Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-47675-4_6

Kinzie, J. D., Boehnlein, J. K., Leung, P. K., Moore, L. J., Riley, C., & Smith, D. (1990). The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and its clinical significance among Southeast Asian refugees. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 147(7), 913–917. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.147.7.913 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.147.7.913

Kokko, K., & Pulkkinen, L. (1998). Unemployment and psychological distress: Mediator effects. Journal of Adult Development, 5(4), 205–217. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021450208639 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021450208639

Lewis, S. E. (2013). Trauma and the making of flexible minds in the Tibetan exile community. Ethos, 41(3), 313–336. https://doi.org/10.1111/etho.12024 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/etho.12024

Lhewa, D., Banu, S., Rosenfeld, B., & Keller, A. (2007). Validation of a Tibetan translation of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist–25 and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Assessment, 14(3), 223–230. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191106298876 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191106298876

Mahmoudi, K. M. (1992). Refugee cross-cultural adjustment: Tibetans in India. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16, 17–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(92)90003-D DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(92)90003-D

Marshall, G. N., Schell, T. L., Elliott, M. N., Berthold, S. M., & Chun, C. A. (2005). Mental health of Cambodian refugees 2 decades after resettlement in the United States. JAMA, 294(5), 571–579. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.294.5.571 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.294.5.571

Mills, E. J., Singh, S., Holtz, T. H., Chase, R. M., Dolma, S., Santa-Barbara, J., & Orbinski, J. J. (2005). Prevalence of mental disorders and torture among Tibetan refugees: A systematic review. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 5(1), Article 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-698X-5-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-698X-5-7

Mohindra, R., R, R.., Suri, V., Bhalla, A., & Singh, S. M. (2020). Issues relevant to mental health promotion in frontline health care providers managing quarantined/isolated COVID19 patients. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, Article 102084. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102084 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102084

Mollica, R. F., Wyshak, G., de Marneffe, D., Khuon, F., & Lavelle, J. (1987). Indochinese versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist–25: A screening instrument for the psychiatric care of refugees. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 144(4), 497–500. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.144.4.497 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.144.4.497

Mukherjee, M. (2020, September). The pandemic and the Tibetan students. Seminar Magazine. https://www.india-seminar.com/2020/733/733_mousumi_mukherjee.htm

Norbu, D. (2001). China’s Tibet policy. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203826959 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203826959

Pieh, C., O’Rourke, T., Budimir, S., & Probst, T. (2020). Relationship quality and mental health during COVID-19 lockdown. PLoS One, 15(9), Article e0238906. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0238906 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0238906

Qiu, J., Shen, B., Zhao, M., Wang, Z., Xie, B., & Xu, Y. (2020). A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: Implications and policy recommendations. General Psychiatry, 33(2), Article e100213. https://doi.org/10.1136/gpsych-2020-100213 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/gpsych-2020-100213

Rehman, U., Shahnawaz, M. G., Khan, N. H., Kharshiing, K. D., Khursheed, M., Gupta, K., Kashyap, D., & Uniyal, R. (2021). Depression, anxiety and stress among Indians in times of COVID-19 lockdown. Community Mental Health Journal, 57, 42–48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-020-00664-x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-020-00664-x

Rosen, J. B., & Schulkin, J. (1998). From normal fear to pathological anxiety. Psychological Review, 105(2), 325–350. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.105.2.325 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.105.2.325

Ruwanpura, E., Mercer, S. W., Ager, A., & Duveen, G. (2006). Cultural and spiritual constructions of mental distress and associated coping mechanisms of Tibetans in exile: Implications for Western interventions. Journal of Refugee Studies, 19(2), 187–202. https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/fej018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/fej018

Sachs, E., Rosenfeld, B., Lhewa, D., Rasmussen, A., & Keller, A. (2008). Entering exile: Trauma, mental health, and coping among Tibetan refugees arriving in Dharamsala, India. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21(2), 199–208. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20324 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20324

Schmitz, P. G., & Schmitz, F. (2012). Emotional intelligence and acculturation. Behavioral Psychology, 20(1), 15–41. https://www.behavioralpsycho.com/product/emotional-intelligence-and-acculturation/?lang=en

Servan-Schreiber, D., Le Lin, B., & Birmaher, B. (1998). Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder in Tibetan refugee children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(8), 874–879. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199808000-00018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199808000-00018

Shukla, M., Pandey, R., Singh, T., Riddleston, L., Hutchinson, T., Kumari, V., & Lau, J. Y. F. (2021). The effect of COVID-19 and related lockdown phases on young peoples’ worries and emotions: Novel data from India. Frontiers in Public Health, 9, Article 645183. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.645183 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.645183

Silove, D. (2004). Mental health problems in migrants and refugees. Australian Doctor, 14, 31–38.

Singh, V. (2021, April 12). Northeast citizens faced racial discrimination amid COVID-19 outbreak, says govt. study. The Hindu. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/northeast-citizens-faced-racial-discrimination-amid-covid-19-outbreak-says-govt-study/article34303162.ece

Siqueira Reis, R., Ferreira Hino, A. A., & Romélio Rodriguez Añez, C. (2010). Perceived stress scale: Reliability and validity study in Brazil. Journal of Health Psychology, 15(1), 107–114. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105309346343 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105309346343

Siriwardhana, C., & Stewart, R. (2013). Forced migration and mental health: Prolonged internal displacement, return migration and resilience. International Health, 5(1), 19–23. https://doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihs014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihs014

Smith, L. (2021, April 9). Why it’s normal to feel anxious about a post-COVID future. Patient. https://patient.info/news-and-features/why-its-normal-to-feel-anxious-about-a-post-covid-future

Terheggen, M. A., Stroebe, M. S., & Kleber, R. J. (2001). Western conceptualizations and Eastern experience: A cross-cultural study of traumatic stress reactions among Tibetan refugees in India. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14(2), 391–403. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011177204593 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011177204593

Torales, J., O’Higgins, M., Castaldelli-Maia, J. M., & Ventriglio, A. (2020). The outbreak of COVID-19 coronavirus and its impact on global mental health. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 66(4), 317–320. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020915212 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020915212

The Tribune India. (2020, April 6). Anxiety over COVID-19 leads to Phagwara woman’s suicide. https://www.tribuneindia.com/news/punjab/anxiety-over-covid-19-leads-to-phagwara-womans-suicide-66466

Tribune News Service. (2020, May 18). Centre extends nationwide lockdown till May 31, new guidelines issued. The Tribune India. https://www.tribuneindia.com/news/nation/centre-extends-nationwide-lockdown-till-may-31-new-guidelines-issued-86042

van de Weem-de Jong, M. (2004). A therapeutic training course for traumatised adolescent refugees. Intervention, 2(3), 226–230. https://www.interventionjournal.com/sites/default/files/226_230_Weem.pdf

Vos, A., Weber, K., Jayasinghe, D., Post, L., Wilson, K., Mehta Dhawan, S., & Zademach, H. M. (2020, November 25). COVID-19 and refugees’ economic opportunities, financial services and digital inclusion. International Rescue Committee. https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/improvingfinancialhealth-r3.pdf

Wagnild, G. (2009). A review of the Resilience Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 17(2), 105–113. https://doi.org/10.1891/1061-3749.17.2.105 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1891/1061-3749.17.2.105

Wagnild, G. M., & Young, H. M. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Resilience Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1(2), 165–178.

Walen, H. R., & Lachman, M. E. (2000). Social support and strain from partner, family, and friends: Costs and benefits for men and women in adulthood. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 17(1), 5–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407500171001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407500171001

Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), Article 1729. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051729 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051729

Wang, H., Xia, Q., Xiong, Z., Li, Z., Xiang, W., Yuan, Y., Liu, Y., & Li, Z. (2020). The psychological distress and coping styles in the early stages of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) epidemic in the general mainland Chinese population: A web-based survey. PLoS One, 15(5), Article e0233410. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233410 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233410

Weine, S. M., Razzano, L., Brkic, N., Ramic, A., Miller, K., Smajkic, A., Bijedic, Z., Boskailo, E., Mermelstein, R., & Pavkovic, I. (2000). Profiling the trauma related symptoms of Bosnian refugees who have not sought mental health services. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 188(7), 416–421. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-200007000-00004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-200007000-00004

World Health Organization. (2020, January 30). WHO Director-General’s statement on IHR Emergency Committee on Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV). https://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-statement-on-ihr-emergency-committee-on-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov)

Worldometers. (2020). COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic. https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/

Wu, S. M., & Amtmann, D. (2013). Psychometric evaluation of the perceived stress scale in multiple sclerosis. International Scholarly Research Notices, 2013, Article 608356. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/608356 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/608356

Xiao, H., Zhang, Y., Kong, D., Li, S., & Yang, N. (2020). The effects of social support on sleep quality of medical staff treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in January and February 2020 in China. Medical Science Monitor, 26, Article e923549. https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.923549 DOI: https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.923549

Yu, H., Li, M., Li, Z., Xiang, W., Yuan, Y., Liu, Y., Li, Z., & Xiong, Z. (2020). Coping style, social support and psychological distress in the general Chinese population in the early stages of the COVID-19 epidemic. BMC Psychiatry, 20(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02826-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02826-3

Zaleski, Z. (1996). Future anxiety: Concept, measurement, and preliminary research. Personality and Individual Differences, 21(2), 165–174. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(96)00070-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(96)00070-0

Zaleski, Z., Sobol-Kwapinska, M., Przepiorka, A., & Meisner, M. (2019). Development and validation of the Dark Future Scale. Time & Society, 28(1), 107–123. https://doi.org/10.1177/0961463X16678257 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0961463X16678257




How to Cite

Tso, L., & Shukla, M. (2022). Experiences of Tibetan Refugees in India during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Refuge: Canada’s Journal on Refugees, 38(1), 43–61. https://doi.org/10.25071/1920-7336.40877