Resettlement of Older Syrian Refugees in Canada: Key Individual Factors of Social Inclusion


  • Jill Hanley School of Social Work, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  • Mahmudul Hassan School of Social Work, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  • Adnan Al Mhamied Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  • Sepali Guruge School of Nursing, Toronto Metropolitan University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • Oula Hajjar School of Social Work, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  • Michaela Hynie York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • Rabih Jamil University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  • Erfaneh Razavipour School of Social Work, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada



Syrian refugees, social isolation, social inclusion, refugee resettlement, older immigrants, older refugees


Existing literature documents how older refugees are at risk of social exclusion and isolation, yet few researchers have investigated the social inclusion of recently (re)settled older Syrian refugees in Canada. Here we apply the social inclusion model to older migrants to analyze the social inclusion of 360 Syrian refugee older adults (51+ years) in Canada. Results indicate that older Syrian refugees tend to have good health, a strong sense of belonging, regular communication with others, and supportive relationships; therefore, they are likely to experience social inclusion, despite education and language challenges. We conclude by discussing the positive structural elements in their resettlement experiences.


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Author Biographies

Jill Hanley, School of Social Work, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Jill Hanley is a Full Professor at the McGill School of Social Work and Scientific Director of the SHERPA University Institute. She can be reached at

Mahmudul Hassan, School of Social Work, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Mahmudul Hassan is a PhD Candidate in the School of Social Work at McGill University. He can be reached at

Adnan Al Mhamied, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Adnan Al Mhamied is a Sessional Lecturer at Concordia University. He can be reached at

Sepali Guruge, School of Nursing, Toronto Metropolitan University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Sepali Guruge is a Professor in the Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing at Toronto Metropolitan University. She can be reached at

Oula Hajjar, School of Social Work, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Oula Hajjar is a PhD Candidate at McGill University’s School of Social Work. She can be reached at

Michaela Hynie, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Michaela Hynie is a Professor of Psychology at York University, and a resident member of York University’s Centre for Refugee Studies. She can be reached at

Rabih Jamil, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Rabih Jamil is a PhD Candidate at the University of Montreal. He can be reached at

Erfaneh Razavipour, School of Social Work, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Erfaneh Razavipour is a Post-Doctoral Fellow at McGill School of Social Work. She can be reached out at


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How to Cite

Hanley, J., Hassan, M., Al Mhamied, A., Guruge, S., Hajjar, O., Hynie, M., … Razavipour, E. (2024). Resettlement of Older Syrian Refugees in Canada: Key Individual Factors of Social Inclusion. Refuge: Canada’s Journal on Refugees, 40(1), 1–23.

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